Bone health, nutrition and osteoporosis are becoming very serious issues.
Worldwide, 1 in 3 women over age 50 will experience osteoporotic fractures, as will 1 in 5 men aged over 50.
Source: IO Bone Health
By the time you reach 30, your bone mass will be at its maximum. However, most women don’t show a decline in bone mass until after menopause. However, the first few years after menopause the loss can be rapid but then slows. This can lead to osteoporosis
Which nutrients are required for healthy bones?
- Vitamin D
Source: National Osteoporosis Foundation
Let’s have a look at some more food sources to consider
|Average portion size||Calcium (mg)||Kj||Calories|
|100 gm Parmesan cheese (finely grated)||1121||1949||466|
|100 gm Swiss||885||1512||362|
|100 gm gouda||810||1605||384|
|100 gm Edam||810||1485||355|
|100 gm Chedder (regular fat)||763||1663||398|
|100 gm Pecorino||743||1512||362|
|100g Sardines (canned)||367||916||219|
|100 gm Australian salmon – canned, drained||352||680||163|
|100 gm Fetta||325||1165||279|
|100 gm Yogurt (plain, regular)||193||367||88|
|100 gm Mussells||173||503||120|
|100 gm Anchovy – Canned drained||167||762||182|
|100 gm Crabmeat – canned, drained||154||247||59|
|100 gm Oysters||132||303||72|
|100 gm Snapper||123||405||97|
|100 ml Milk (regular)||117||277||66|
|100 gm Chicken Egg – poached||53||627||150|
|100 gm Basil||352||119||28|
|100 gm tahini (sesame paste)||330||2717||650|
|100 gm Tahini||330||2717||650|
|100g firm tofu||320||530||127|
|100 gm Almond with skin||250||2503||599|
|100 gm Parsley raw, curly||245||110||26|
|100 gm Dried Figs||200||1082||259|
|100 gm Chia Seeds||179||2052||491|
|100 gm Cabbage, Bok choy stir-fried, no oil||123||116||28|
|100 gm sunflower seeds||100||2465||590|
|100 gm Broccolini, steamed||100||138||33|
|100 gm Coriander, fresh, leaves & stems||84||167||40|
|100 gm Sesame seeds||62||2530||605|
|100g fresh fig||38||195||47|
|100g hemp seeds||37||2300||550|
Check out some of our high calcium recipes
- Mushrooms – place in sun 2 hours prior to cooking, check out our vegetarian chilli con carne recipe
- Fatty fish – salmon, mackerel, herrings
- Egg yolks
- Cod liver oil
- Fermented Vegetables – check out our recipe here
- Kefir – check out our recipe here
- Hard Cheeses
- Let’s review the research on some of these nutrients
Let’s firstly look at Vitamin K2 and the research behind it
“Vitamin K2 appears to be the most important form of vitamin K for bone health. Recently, scientists have been studying the relationship between vitamin K2 and bone in more detail, carrying out trials to investigate how vitamin K2 supplements may improve bone health in some people. The research has focussed on women who have been through menopause – this group is most at risk of developing osteoporosis and suffering fractures”
source: Osteoporosis Australia
A study conducted by the Research Institute and Practice for Involutional Diseases, Nagano Prefecture, Japan concluded that Vitamin K2 effectively prevents fractures and sustains lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis.
Attempted to investigate whether vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) treatment effectively prevents the incidence of new fractures in osteoporosis. A total of 241 osteoporotic patients were enrolled in a 24-month randomized open label study. The control group (without treatment; n = 121) and the vitamin K2-treated group (n = 120), which received 45 mg/day orally vitamin K2, were followed for lumbar bone mineral density
Vitamin K2 prevents calcium from going into all the wrong places and makes sure it gets into all the right places. For example, it keeps it out of your kidneys, where it would cause kidney stones, and keeps it out of your blood vessels, where it would cause heart disease, but helps it to get into your bones and teeth, making your bones strong and your teeth resistant to cavities.
source: Chris MasterJohn PhD
Dairy and Osteoporosis
A recent Korean 4-year study (October 2018) conducted by Gachon University and Inje University, aimed at identifying the effects of dairy products, milk and yogurt on osteoporosis incidence among Korean postmenopausal women concluded that daily intake of dairy products could potentially reduce radius osteoporosis incidence among Korean postmenopausal women
In addition, research conducted by Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China in 2015 concludes
The aim of this study was to identify the effect of dairy products, milk and yoghurt on osteoporosis incidence among Korean postmenopausal women using prospective cohort data.
Between 2001 and 2003, 10,038 participants were recruited in rural and urban areas for a baseline examination of a community-based cohort study. Of those, 1,573 postmenopausal women (aged 40-69 years at baseline) were eligible for the present study. Intakes of dairy products, milk, and yogurt were assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The speed of sound at the radius and tibia were measured using a quantitative ultrasound device and osteoporosis was defined based on the WHO criteria (T-score ≤ -2.5).
This study suggests that daily intake of dairy products could potentially reduce radius osteoporosis incidence among Korean postmenopausal women
A randomized, double-blind controlled trial conducted in Oct 2017 studied the Effects of a Multispecies Probiotic Supplement on Bone Health in Osteopenic Postmenopausal Women
the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a multispecies probiotic supplementation on bone biomarkers and bone density in osteopenic postmenopausal women.
This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 50 patients with osteopenia aged 50-72 years. Participants were randomly assigned to take either a multispecies probiotic supplement (GeriLact; n = 25) or placebo (n = 25) for 6 months. GeriLact contains 7 probiotic bacteria species.
These results may suggest the favourable effects of the multispecies probiotic supplementation for 6 months on bone health in postmenopausal women due to slowing down the rate of bone turnover.
Other foods for bone health
24 subjects were divided into two groups and advised to intake 100 mL of onion juice or placebo for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected at the initial, 2(nd), 6(th), 8(th) and 10(th) week.
The conclusion was: Onion juice consumption showed a positive modulatory effect on the bone loss and BMD by improving antioxidant activities and thus can be recommended for treating various bone-related disorders, especially osteoporosis
In addition, research conducted by Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China in 2015 studying multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality concludes:
Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.
Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.
A number of factors have been found to contribute to bone loss. Including:
- Soft Drinks
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Excessive protein intake
- Excessive salt intake