Bone Health Nutrition and Osteoporosis

Nov 9, 2018 | Nutrition

Bone Health, Nutrition & Osteoporosis

Bone health, nutrition and osteoporosis are becoming very serious issues.

Worldwide, 1 in 3 women over age 50 will experience osteoporotic fractures, as will 1 in 5 men aged over 50.

Source: IO Bone Health

By the time you reach 30, your bone mass will be at its maximum. However, most women don’t show a decline in bone mass until after menopause. However, the first few years after menopause the loss can be rapid but then slows. This can lead to osteoporosis

Which nutrients are required for healthy bones?

  • Calcium
  • Vitamin D
  • Phosphorous
  • K2
  • Protein
  • Magnesium
  • Potassium
  • Fluoride

Food for bones

Source: National Osteoporosis Foundation

Let’s have a look at some more food sources to consider

Calcium

Average portion size Calcium (mg) Kj Calories
Non-Vegan
100 gm Parmesan cheese (finely grated) 1121 1949 466
100 gm Swiss 885 1512 362
100 gm gouda 810 1605 384
100 gm Edam 810 1485 355
100 gm Chedder (regular fat) 763 1663 398
100 gm Pecorino 743 1512 362
100g Sardines (canned) 367 916 219
100 gm Australian salmon – canned, drained 352 680 163
100 gm Fetta 325 1165 279
100 gm Yogurt (plain, regular) 193 367 88
100 gm Mussells 173 503 120
100 gm Anchovy – Canned drained 167 762 182
100 gm Crabmeat – canned, drained 154 247 59
100 gm Oysters 132 303 72
100 gm Snapper 123 405 97
100 ml Milk (regular) 117 277 66
100 gm Chicken Egg – poached 53 627 150
Vegan
100 gm Basil 352 119 28
100 gm tahini (sesame paste) 330 2717 650
100 gm Tahini 330 2717 650
100g firm tofu 320 530 127
100 gm Almond with skin 250 2503 599
100 gm Parsley raw, curly 245 110 26
100 gm Dried Figs 200 1082 259
100 gm Chia Seeds 179 2052 491
100 gm Cabbage, Bok choy stir-fried, no oil 123 116 28
100 gm sunflower seeds 100 2465 590
100 gm Broccolini, steamed 100 138 33
100 gm Coriander, fresh, leaves & stems 84 167 40
100 gm Sesame seeds 62 2530 605
100g fresh fig 38 195 47
100g hemp seeds 37 2300 550
100g rhubarb 26 94 22

Check out some of our high calcium recipes

Vitamin D

  • Mushrooms – place in sun 2 hours prior to cooking, check out our vegetarian chilli con carne recipe
  • Fatty fish – salmon, mackerel, herrings
  • Liver
  • Egg yolks
  • Cod liver oil

Vitamin K2

Research

Vitamin K2

Let’s firstly look at Vitamin K2 and the research behind it

Osteoporosis Australia states

“Vitamin K2 appears to be the most important form of vitamin K for bone health. Recently, scientists have been studying the relationship between vitamin K2 and bone in more detail, carrying out trials to investigate how vitamin K2 supplements may improve bone health in some people. The research has focussed on women who have been through menopause – this group is most at risk of developing osteoporosis and suffering fractures”

source: Osteoporosis Australia

A study conducted by the Research Institute and Practice for Involutional Diseases, Nagano Prefecture, Japan concluded that Vitamin K2 effectively prevents fractures and sustains lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis.

The study:

Attempted to investigate whether vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) treatment effectively prevents the incidence of new fractures in osteoporosis. A total of 241 osteoporotic patients were enrolled in a 24-month randomized open label study. The control group (without treatment; n = 121) and the vitamin K2-treated group (n = 120), which received 45 mg/day orally vitamin K2, were followed for lumbar bone mineral density

Source: Research Institute and Practice for Involutional Diseases, Nagano Prefecture, Japan

Chris MasterJohn PhD says:

Vitamin K2 prevents calcium from going into all the wrong places and makes sure it gets into all the right places. For example, it keeps it out of your kidneys, where it  would cause kidney stones, and keeps it out of your blood vessels, where it would cause heart disease, but helps it to get into your bones and teeth, making your bones strong and your teeth resistant to cavities.

source: Chris MasterJohn PhD

Dairy and Osteoporosis

A recent Korean 4-year study (October 2018) conducted by  Gachon University and Inje University, aimed at identifying the effects of dairy products, milk and yogurt on osteoporosis incidence among Korean postmenopausal women concluded that daily intake of dairy products could potentially reduce radius osteoporosis incidence among Korean postmenopausal women

In addition, research conducted by Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China in 2015 concludes

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:
The aim of this study was to identify the effect of dairy products, milk and yoghurt on osteoporosis incidence among Korean postmenopausal women using prospective cohort data.
MATERIALS/METHODS:
Between 2001 and 2003, 10,038 participants were recruited in rural and urban areas for a baseline examination of a community-based cohort study. Of those, 1,573 postmenopausal women (aged 40-69 years at baseline) were eligible for the present study. Intakes of dairy products, milk, and yogurt were assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The speed of sound at the radius and tibia were measured using a quantitative ultrasound device and osteoporosis was defined based on the WHO criteria (T-score ≤ -2.5).
CONCLUSIONS:
This study suggests that daily intake of dairy products could potentially reduce radius osteoporosis incidence among Korean postmenopausal women

source: Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China in 2015

Probiotics

A randomized, double-blind controlled trial conducted in Oct 2017 studied the Effects of a Multispecies Probiotic Supplement on Bone Health in Osteopenic Postmenopausal Women

the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a multispecies probiotic supplementation on bone biomarkers and bone density in osteopenic postmenopausal women.
METHODS:
This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 50 patients with osteopenia aged 50-72 years. Participants were randomly assigned to take either a multispecies probiotic supplement (GeriLact; n = 25) or placebo (n = 25) for 6 months. GeriLact contains 7 probiotic bacteria species.
CONCLUSIONS:
These results may suggest the favourable effects of the multispecies probiotic supplementation for 6 months on bone health in postmenopausal women due to slowing down the rate of bone turnover.

Other foods for bone health

Onion Juice

A study was conducted of the consumption of onion juice by post-menopausal women

24 subjects were divided into two groups and advised to intake 100 mL of onion juice or placebo for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected at the initial, 2(nd), 6(th), 8(th) and 10(th) week.
The conclusion was: Onion juice consumption showed a positive modulatory effect on the bone loss and BMD by improving antioxidant activities and thus can be recommended for treating various bone-related disorders, especially osteoporosis

Bottled Water

In addition, research conducted by Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China in 2015 studying multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality concludes:

BACKGROUND:
Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.
CONCLUSION:
Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.

Bone loss

A number of factors have been found to contribute to bone loss. Including:

  • Coffee
  • Tea
  • Alcohol
  • Soft Drinks
  • Smoking
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Excessive protein intake
  • Excessive salt intake

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